Mauritania is mostly reliant on fossil fuels to meet its domestic energy demand. Fossil fuels account for about 66% of primary energy consumption, while the remaining 34% come from biomass, which is mostly used for cooking and heating. Electricity is mainly generated through thermal diesel engine generators. Due to increasing domestic energy demand and insufficient installed power capacity, total energy consumption exceeds national energy production by about 35%, resulting mostly in importation of fossil fuels. The country is seeking to meet its growing energy demand with fewer fuel imports by integrating renewable energy as a source of power. By 2015 and 2020, Mauritania aims to achieve 15% and 20% respectively of primary energy consumption to come from renewable energy, excluding biomass.

Mauritania is a RCREEE member state since 2014.